Infrastructure: from your Enterprise to the Starship Enterprise: Building the right Playground – Part 1

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Now, if you know me or every met me in any way, you know that I am a big Trekkie. The Star Trek series was very defining for my life in my ways. From the original series to Star Trek Next Generation to DS9, Enterprise, and off course Voyager. So recently, I decided to write this blog series in a context that many of us can understand over the coming weeks. I know that Star Trek is the love of many IT Pros.  And so we began this series on infrastructure.. Continue reading

Azure Stack 101: What It Is and How It Can Help Your Datacenter

Microsoft’s Azure Stack allows enterprises to run a hybrid cloud right in their own datacenters, giving them additional cloud options.

Cloud computing continues to expand in use for a wide variety of enterprises, but it all doesn’t have to happen outside your company’s datacenters. Continue reading

Storage Spaces Direct Explained – Applications & Performance

Applications

Microsoft SQL Server product group announced that SQL Server, either virtual or bare metal, is fully supported on Storage Spaces Direct. The Exchange Team did not have a clear endorsement for Exchange on S2D and clearly still prefers that Exchange is deployed on physical servers with local JBODs using Exchange Database Availability Groups or that customers simply move to O365.
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Storage Spaces Direct Explained – Management & Operations

Management & Operations
Good day everyone. It been a few weeks, like busy with work and such. Anyways, this post will go into how Management & Operations are done in S2D.  Now, my biggest pet peeve is complex GUI management and yet again, Microsoft doesn’t disappoint.  It still a number of steps in different interfaces to bring up S2D, Check out Aidan Finns blog post on disaggregated management from last year.  It still rings true to this day with the release of 2016. It shouldn’t be this complex IMO 🙁 That being said, let move to the details.

Management & OperationsManagement & Operations

Microsoft is pushing everyone to use PowerShell as the primary management tool for Storage Spaces, but you can also manage it with a combination of Windows Failover Cluster Manager, SCVMM, and SCOM as mentioned above. So if you are good at Powershell, management is fairly simple. If not, then you have the classic switching between different tools management experience :(. This is why everyone really needs to start their PowerShell training now, to survive as an architect in Microsoft land going forward ;).

There is a Health Service built into Windows Server 2016 that provides some decent system health and status information for Storage Spaces. I just saw a few demos at ignite16 and have not played with it yet, so I’ll have to dig into this further and see how they stack up in a future post.
Management & OperationsManagement & Operations
S2D supports cluster aware updating that integrates with the Windows Update Service. Like VSAN, because they run in kernel, they need to live migrate VMs off the host server, perform the update, reboot, and then migrate everything back. I’ll note that this is only the case for the hyper-converged deployment model. In a converged model where the VMs are on a separate compute tier, you can update the storage controllers one at a time fairly seamlessly without impacting VMs on the separate compute tier.

While I am not a big fan of the management,  this could give rise to tools like 5nine if they decide to support S2D management. Next up. Application and Performance, Until next time, Rob.

Storage Spaces Direct Explained – Storage QOS & Networking

Storage QOS & NetworkingYo everyone…This is going to be a short blog post in this series. I am just covering Networking and Storage QoS as it pertains to S2D. There are the technologies the bind S2D together.
Storage QoS

S2D is using the Storage (QoS) Quality of Service that ships with Windows Server 2016 which provides standard min/max IOPS and bandwidth control. QoS policy can be applied at the VHD, VM, Groups of VMs, or Tenant Level. Benefits include:

  • Mitigate noisy neighbor issues. By default, Storage QoS ensures that a single virtual machine cannot consume all storage resources and starve other virtual machines of storage bandwidth.
  • Monitor end to end storage performance. As soon as virtual machines stored on a Scale-Out File Server are started, their performance is monitored. Performance details of all running virtual machines and the configuration of the Scale-Out File Server cluster can be viewed from a single location
  • Manage Storage I/O per workload business needs Storage QoS policies define performance minimums and maximums for virtual machines and ensures that they are met. This provides consistent performance to virtual machines, even in dense and overprovisioned environments. If policies cannot be met, alerts are available to track when VMs are out of policy or have invalid policies assigned.

Storage QOS & NetworkingWhat’s New in Networking with S2D?
In Windows Server 2016, they added Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) support to the Hyper-V virtual switch.
For those that don’t know what RMDA is it technology that allows direct memory access from one computer to another, bypassing TCP layer, CPU , OS layer and driver layer. Allowing for low latency and high-throughput connections. This is done with hardware transport offloads on network adapters that support RDMA.
Back to Hyper-V virtual switch support for RDMA.  This allows you to configure regular or RDMA enabled vNICs on top of a pair of RDMA capable physical NICs. They also added embedded NIC teaming or Switch Embedded Teaming (SET).
SET is where NIC teaming and the Hyper-V switch is a single entity and can now be used in conjunction with RDMA NICs, wherein Windows 2012 Server you needed to have separate NIC teams for RDMA and Hyper-V Switch.
The images below illustrates the architecture changes between Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016.
Storage QOS & Networking
Storage QOS & NetworkingNext up…Management and Operations…

Until next time, Rob

Storage Spaces Direct Explained – Fault Tolerance and Multisite Replication

funniest-construction-mistakes-25Fault Tolerance…What does it mean?  Let me break it down simply. Pictured above is just a bad design, not fault tolerance. This is not really what fault tolerance means. Having two or more of something is one factor, but how it’s implanted is just as important.  Fault Tolerance incorporates two very important principles, High availability and Redundancy.
Now if we had a few toilets side by side and kept only 1 open and the other 2 on standby. Also, if it could move the user automatically to another toilet during a failure, then it technically it would be fault tolerant. Anyways, let’s move on from toilets to the real world. 🙂
stalls-3Simply, Fault Tolerance is the ability to continue non-stop when a hardware failure occurs. A fault-tolerant system is designed from the ground up for reliability by building multiples of all critical components, such as CPUs, memories, disks and power supplies into the same computer. In the event one component fails, another takes over without skipping a beat.
Many systems are designed to recover from a failure by detecting the failed component and switching to another computer system. These systems, although sometimes called fault tolerant, are more widely known as “high availability” systems, requiring that the software re-submits the job when the second system is available.
True fault tolerant systems with redundant hardware are the most costly because the additional components add to the overall system cost. However, fault tolerant systems provide the same processing capacity after a failure as before, whereas high availability systems often provide reduced capacity. Ok, let move on to fault tolerance in S2D.
Fault Tolerance in S2D

Storage Space Direct (S2D) uses 3-way mirroring and will spread those mirrors across 3 different servers in the cluster. S2D supports full chassis and rack awareness and gives you the option to distribute data copies across these fault domains.
For disk failures, S2D also uses a self-healing approach… in basic terms, S2D offlines the disk and rebuilds the data copy on another node in the cluster. Replacing a drive adds capacity back into the system.  This is important note as not all HCI vendors support self-healing, For example, on VSAN and some other vendors, disk failures take out entire vDisks.
Fault Tolerance Fault Tolerance Fault Tolerance Fault Tolerance
Multisite Replication

S2D uses Storage Replica (that ships with Windows Server 2016) for synchronous or async replication. They support both stretched clusters and cluster to cluster DR. Storage Replica is part of Windows Server  can be used for other data replication needs outside of S2D.
Fault ToleranceFault ToleranceOk…Next up, Storage QOS and Networking..

Until next time, Rob….