Here’s where we dive in and get dirty…but I promise by the end of my series, you will smiling like my friend here. I am planning a surprise with special guest bloggers. Stayed Tuned. Now one to the show…..
The NEW ReFS File System, Multi-Tier Volumes and Erasure Coding
Like S2D, the ReFS file system actually isn’t new either, they have been working on it for several releases now also. In Windows Server 2016, it finally drops the tech preview label and is now ready for production. And there is a lot of benefits… like volume creation doesn’t have to zero out the volume for 10 minutes like NTFS. It’s just a metadata operation that is effectively instantaneous now, I’m just going to focus on the couple of benefits that ReFS has for S2D.
For those not familiar Erasure coding (EC) and to prepare you for the next part, EC is a method of data protection in which data is broken into fragments, expanded and encoded with redundant data pieces and stored across a set of different locations.
The original goal of EC was to enable data that becomes corrupted at some point in the storage process to be reconstructed by using information about the data that’s stored elsewhere. Erasure codes are great, because of their ability to reduce the time and overhead required to reconstruct data. The drawback of erasure coding is that it can be more CPU-intensive, and that can translate into increased latency.
Now all that being said, classic erasure codes were designed and optimized more for communication, not for storage. Naively applying classic erasure codes in storage is okay, but is missing enormous efficiencies. Microsoft has developed their own erasure codes optimized for storage called Local Reconstruction Codes (LRC). I will cover this brieifly further down in the post.
Now back on to S2D…For data protection, S2D uses either 3-way mirroring or distributed parity with EC. Mirroring gives you great write performance, but only 33% data efficiency. EC gives you good data efficiency, but random write performance isn’t great for hot data. ReFS supports the ability to combine different disk tiers using different parity schemes in the same vDisk. This allows S2D to do real-time data tiering by writing new data to the mirror tier and then automatically rotating cold data out to the parity tier and applying the erasure code on data rotation.
It is important to note that ReFS does not currently support Deduplication. There was a question on this in every session and MSFT says that this is all the ReFS is currently focused on. So we’ll expect to see it land in ReFSv3. For now, customers can get dedupe with S2D by using NTFS. 🙁 Note if you only have two types of storage then the highest performing is used for the cache while the other type will be divided between performance and capacity with the different resiliency option (mirror vs parity) providing the performance/capacity difference between the tiers. If you only have one type of storage then the cache is disabled and the disks divided between performance and capacity like the previously mentioned case.
For non-Storage Spaces Direct only two tiers, of storage are supported like Windows Server 2012 R2, i.e. SSD and HDD, there is no cache. If you had NVMe storage that could be the “hot” tier while the rest of storage (SSD, HDD) could be the “cold” tier (you name the tiers whatever you want) but you cannot use three tiers. During Ignite 2016, Microsoft took many shots at VMware. Microsoft said that there’s a right way and a wrong way to do erasure coding. “When you do it the wrong way, performance sucks and you have to limit it to all-flash configurations.”
Microsoft research is using a new technique called “Local Reconstruction Codes”. It uses smaller groups within the vDisk that allows them to recover from failures much faster by not having to reconstruct data from across the entire pool. This combined with multi-tier volumes gives S2D good performance, even on hybrid systems. Sounds like a technology that I seen before. Hmmm..I wonder where……. 😉 Ok, that’s all for now. next up, Fault Tolerance and Multisite Replication with S2D….
Hi all…It’s been a few weeks since my last blog post. I’ve been busy with some travel to Microsoft Technology Centers and working on the Nutanix Ready Program. Yesterday, Nutanix released NOS 4.5. This exciting upgrade adds some great features.. Sit back and get ready to enjoy the ride…release notes below.
Table 1. Terminology Updates
Formerly Known As
Acropolis base software
Nutanix operating system, NOS
Acropolis hypervisor, AHV
Nutanix KVM hypervisor
Nutanix API and Acropolis API
Acropolis App Mobility Fabric
Acropolis virtualization management and administration
Acropolis Distributed Storage Fabric, DSF
Nutanix Distributed Filesystem (NDFS)
Web console (for cluster management); also known as the Prism web console; a cluster managed by Prism Central
Prism Central (for multicluster management)
Block fault tolerance
What’s New in Acropolis base software 4.5
Bandwidth Limit on Schedule
The bandwidth throttling policy provides you with an option to set the maximum limit of the network bandwidth. You can specify the policy depending on the usage of your network.
Note: You can configure bandwidth throttling only while updating the remote site. This option is not available during the configuration of remote site.
Cloud Connect for Azure
The cloud connect feature for Azure enables you to back up and restore copies of virtual machines and files to and from an on-premise cluster and a Nutanix Controller VM located on the Microsoft Azure cloud. Once configured through the Prism web console, the remote site cluster is managed and monitored through the Data Protection dashboard like any other remote site you have created and configured. This feature is currently supported for ESXi hypervisor environments only.
Common Access Card Authentication
You can configure two-factor authentication for web console users that have an assigned role and use a Common Access Card (CAC).
Default Container and Storage Pool Upon Cluster Creation
When you create a cluster, the Acropolis base software automatically creates a container and storage pool for you.
Complementary to deduplication and compression, erasure coding increases the effective or usable cluster storage capacity. [FEAT-1096]
After creating a Nutanix Hyper-V cluster environment, you can use the Prism web console to join the hosts to the domain, create the Hyper-V failover cluster, and also enable Kerberos.
Image Service Now Available in the Prism Web Console
The Prism web console Image Configuration workflow enables a user to upload ISO or disk images (in ESXi or Hyper-V format) to a Nutanix AHV cluster by specifying a remote repository URL or by uploading a file from a local machine.
MPIO Access to iSCSI Disks (Windows Guest VMs)
Acropolis base software 4.5 feature to help enforce access control to volume groups and expose volume group disks as dual namespace disks.
Network mapping allows you to control network configuration for the VMs when they are started on the remote site. This feature enables you to specify network mapping between the source cluster and the destination cluster. The remote site wizard includes an option to create one or more network mappings and allows you to select source and destination network from the drop-down list. You can also modify or remove network mappings as part of modifying the remote sites.
Nutanix Cluster Check
Acropolis base software 4.5 includes Nutanix Cluster Check (NCC) 2.1, which includes many new checks and functionality.
NX-6035C Clusters Usable as a Target for Replication
You can use a Nutanix NX-6035C cluster as a target for Nutanix native replication and snapshots, created by source Nutanix clusters in your environment. You can configure the NX-6035C as a target for snapshots, set a longer retention policy than on the source cluster (for example), and restore snapshots to the source cluster as needed. The source cluster hypervisor environment can be AHV, Hyper-V, or ESXi. See Nutanix NX-6035C Replication Target in Notes and Cautions.
Note: You cannot use an NX-6035C cluster as a backup target with third-party backup software.
Prism Central Can Now Be Deployed on the Acropolis Hypervisor (AHV)
Nutanix has introduced a Prism Central OVA which can be deployed on an AHV cluster by leveraging Image Service features. See the Web Console Guide for installation details.
By increasing memory capacity to 16GB and expanding its virtual disk to 260GB, Prism Central can support a maximum of 100 clusters and 10000 VMs (across all the clusters and assuming each VM has an average of two virtual disks). Please contact Nutanix support if you decide to change the configuration of the Prism Central VM.
Prism Central Scalability, Compatibility and Deployment
Simplified Add Node Workflow
This release leverages Foundation 3.0 imaging capabilities and automates the manual steps previously required for expanding a cluster through the Prism web console.
The Nutanix SNMP MIB database includes the following changes:
The database includes tables for monitoring hypervisor instances and virtual machines.
The service status table named serviceStatusTable is obsolete. Analogous information is available in a new table named controllerStatusTable. The new table has a smaller number of MIB fields for displaying the status of only essential services in the Acropolis base software.
The disk status table (diskStatusTable), storage pool table (storagePoolInformationTable), and cluster information table include one or more new MIB fields.
The SNMP feature also includes the following enhancements:
From the web console, you can trigger test alerts that are sent to all configured SNMP trap receivers.
SNMP service logs are now written to the following log file: /home/nutanix/data/logs/snmp_manager.out
Support for Minor Release Upgrades for ESXi Hosts
Acropolis base software 4.5 enables you to patch upgrade ESXi hosts with minor release versions of ESXi host software through the Controller VM cluster command. Nutanix qualifies specific VMware updates and provides a related JSON metadata upgrade file for one-click upgrade, but now customers can patch hosts by using the offline bundle and md5sum checksum available from VMware, and using the Controller VM cluster command.
Note: Nutanix supports the ability to patch upgrade ESXi hosts with minor versions that are greater than or released after the Nutanix qualified version, but Nutanix might not have qualified those minor releases. Please see the the Nutanix hypervisor support statement in our Support FAQ.
VM High Availability in Acropolis
In case of a node failure, VM High Availability (VM-HA) ensures that VMs running on the node are automatically restarted on the remaining nodes within the cluster. VM-HA can optionally be configured to reserve spare failover capacity. This capacity reservation can be distributed across the nodes in chunks known as “segments” to provide better overall resource utilization.
Windows Guest VM Failover Clustering
Acropolis base software 4.5 supports configuring Windows guest VMs as a failover cluster. This clustering type enables applications on a failed VM to fail over to and run on another guest VM on the same or different host. This release supports this feature on Hyper-V hosts with in-guest VM iSCSI and SCSI 3 Persistent Reservation (PR).
Tech Preview Features
Note: Do not use tech preview features on production systems or storage used or data stored on production systems.
File Level Restore
The file level restore feature allows a virtual machine user to restore a file within a virtual machine from the Nutanix protected snapshot with minimal Nutanix administrator intervention.
Note: This feature should be used only after upgrading all nodes in the cluster to Acropolis base software 4.5.
What’s New in Prism Central
Prism Central for Acropolis Hypervisor (AHV)
Nutanix has introduced a Prism Central VM which is compatible with AHV to enable multicluster management in this environment. Prism Central now supports all three major hypervisors: AHV, Hyper-V, and ESXi.
Prism Central Scalability
The Prism Central VM requires these resources to support the clusters and VMs indicated in the table.
Prism Central vCPU
Prism Central Memory (GB, default)
Total Storage Required for Prism Central VM (GB)
VMs Supported (across all clusters)
Virtual disks per VM
Release Notes | NCC 2.1
Learn More About NCC Health Checks
You can learn more about the Nutanix Cluster Check (NCC) health checks on the Nutanix support portal. The portal includes a series of Knowledge Base articles describing most NCC health checks run by the ncc health_checks command.
What’s New in NCC 2.1
NCC 2.1 includes support for:
Acropolis base software 4.5 or later
NOS 4.1.3 or later only
All Nutanix NX Series models
Dell XC Series of Web-scale Converged Appliances
Tech Preview Features
The following features are available as a Tech Preview in NCC 2.1.
Run NCC health checks in parallel
You can specify the number of NCC health checks to run in parallel to reduce the amount of time it takes for all checks to complete. For example, the command ncc health_checks run_all –parallel=25 will run 25 of the health checks in parallel.
Use npyscreen to display NCC status
You can specify npyscreen as part of the ncc command to display status to the terminal window. Specify –npyscreen=true as part of the ncc health_checks command.
New Checks in This Release
Check whether disks are discoverable by the host. Pass if the disks are discovered.
This release includes the following enhancements and changes:
A major new implementation that allows for node imaging and cluster creation through the Controller VM for factory-prepared nodes on the same subnet. This process significantly reduces network complications and simplifies the workflow. (The existing workflow remains for imaging bare metal nodes.) The new implementation includes the following enhancements:
A Java aplet that automatically discovers factory-prepared nodes on the subnet and allows you to select the first one to image.
A simplified GUI to select and configure the nodes, define the cluster, select the hypervisor and Acropolis base software versions to use, and monitor the imaging and cluster creation process.
Customers may create a cluster using the new Controller VM-based implementation in Foundation 3.0. Imaging bare metal nodes is still restricted to Nutanix sales engineers, support engineers, and partners.
The new implementation is incorporated in the Acropolis base software version 4.5 to allow for node imaging when adding nodes to an existing cluster through the Prism GUI.
The cluster creation workflow does not use IPMI, and for both cluster creation and bare-metal imaging, the host operating system install is done within an “installer VM” in Phoenix.
To see the progress of a host operating system installation, point a VNC console at the node’s Controller VM IP address on port 5901.
Foundation no longer offers the option to run diagnostics.py as a post-imaging test. Should you wish to run this test, you can download it from the Tools & Firmware page on the Nutanix support portal.
There is no Foundation upgrade path to the new Controller VM implementation; you must download the Java aplet from the Foundation 3.0 download page on the support portal. However, you can upgrade Foundation 2.1.x to 3.0 for the bare metal workflow as follows:
Copy the Foundation tarball (foundation-version#.tar.gz) from the support portal to /home/nutanix in your VM.
Navigate to /home/nutanix.
Enter the following five commands:
$ sudo service foundation_service stop
$ rm -rf foundation
$ tar xzf foundation-version#.tar.gz
$ sudo yum install python-scp
$ sudo service foundation_service restart
If the first command (foundation_service stop) is skipped or the commands are not run in order, the user may get bizarre errors after upgrading. To fix this situation, enter the following two commands:
$ sudo pkill -9 foundation
$ sudo service foundation_service restart
Release Notes for each of these products is located at:
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